After two days of the prosecution’s oral arguments, the trial now turns to Trump’s defense team.

The fast-moving impeachment trial of former President Donald J. Trump will turn on Friday to his defense, with his legal team seeking to persuade senators that he should be acquitted of inciting an insurrection.

Mr. Trump’s lawyers will make their oral arguments after the House impeachment managers, who are acting as the prosecution, laid out their case against the former president over two days. They relied partly on chilling footage of the Capitol assault that was intended to convey the deadly consequences of the president’s behavior after his election defeat.

During its presentation on Friday, the defense team is expected to argue that contrary to the portrayal offered by the prosecution, Mr. Trump did not encourage the violence that took place at the Capitol on Jan. 6 as Congress met to certify the election results.

The former president’s lawyers are expected to assert that his remarks to supporters that day are protected under the First Amendment, an argument that the House managers sought to pre-emptively rebut as they addressed senators on Thursday.

Mr. Trump’s lawyers may also return to the matter of whether it is constitutional to hold the trial in the first place, since he is no longer in office. They got off to a shaky start on Tuesday during a debate over the trial’s constitutionality, delivering a performance that enraged Mr. Trump. After hearing arguments on that issue, the Senate voted 56 to 44 for the trial to proceed.

The trial is moving rapidly, which has advantages for Republicans and Democrats. Democratic lawmakers want to move forward with President Biden’s proposed coronavirus relief package, and impeachment will consume much of the oxygen on the Senate side of the Capitol for as long as the trial lasts. Republicans are grappling with deep divisions over the party’s future now that Mr. Trump is out of office, and the proceedings are centering a floodlight on his conduct.

Mr. Trump’s defense team has up to 16 hours over two days for oral arguments, but one of his lawyers, David I. Schoen, said they may use only three to four hours. Once they are finished, senators will have up to four hours to question the two sides.

A final vote on whether to convict Mr. Trump could take place on Saturday, a time frame that would make it the fastest impeachment trial for a president in American history.

The trial is moving rapidly, which has advantages for Republicans and Democrats. Democratic lawmakers want to move forward with President Biden’s proposed coronavirus relief package, and impeachment will consume much of the oxygen on the Senate side of the Capitol for as long as the trial lasts. Republicans are grappling with deep divisions over the party’s future now that Mr. Trump is out of office, and the proceedings are centering a floodlight on his conduct.

Mr. Trump’s defense team has up to 16 hours over two days for oral arguments, but one of his lawyers, David I. Schoen, said they may use only three to four hours. Once they are finished, senators will have up to four hours to question the two sides.

A final vote on whether to convict Mr. Trump could take place on Saturday, a time frame that would make it the fastest impeachment trial for a president in American history.

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